(a) φ = 0.01, (b) φ = 0.03, and (c) φ = 0.05. It is also found that almost all the isolines behave with oscillations in Figures 6, 7, 8, 9, but smooth isolines are given in Figures 3 and 5. Due to the ruleless Brownian movement of nanoparticles, it is difficult for nanofluid to achieve a complete equilibrium state, which is the difference compared with other common two-phase

fluids. In order to expediently judge the equilibrium state and save time, we choose the temperature equilibrium states of water phase and nanoparticle phase as the RO4929097 ic50 whole nanofluid equilibrium state in the computation. When the water-phase and nanoparticle-phase temperatures all achieve equilibrium state, the whole nanofluid (temperature distribution, velocity vectors, density distribution, and nanoparticle volume fraction distribution) is considered as being in an equilibrium state.

Hence, the temperature isolines in Figures 3 and 5 look smooth due to a complete equilibrium state, and the density distribution in Figures 6 and 7 and nanoparticle volume fraction C188-9 in vitro distribution in Figures 8 and 9 behave with oscillations due to an approximate equilibrium state. Although the interparticle interaction forces have little effect on heat transfer, they play an important role on the nanoparticle distribution. Figure 10 shows the Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Al2O3-water nanofluid at Ra = 103. It can be seen that the Nusselt number along the heated surface increases with nanoparticle volume fraction at low Y (0 < Y < 0.58) and decreases with nanoparticle volume fraction Adenosine at high Y (0.58 < Y < 1). Because the heat transfer is more sensitive to thermal buy Semaxanib conductivity than viscosity at low Y, while it is more

sensitive to viscosity than thermal conductivity at high Y. Figure 10 Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Al 2 O 3 -water nanofluid at Ra = 10 3 . Figure 11 shows Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Al2O3-water nanofluid at Ra = 105. It can be seen that the Nusselt number along the heated surface increases with nanoparticle volume fraction at low Y (0 < Y < 0.875) and decreases with nanoparticle volume fraction at high Y (0.875 < Y < 1). Compared with Figure 7, the Nusselt number becomes larger, and the enhanced heat transfer section also gets longer. The high Rayleigh number increases the velocity and then enhances the heat transfer. Figure 11 Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Al 2 O 3 -water nanofluid at Ra = 10 5 . Figure 12 presents the average Nusselt numbers at different Rayleigh numbers. Although the Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface increases with nanoparticle volume fraction in one section and decreases in the other section, the average Nusselt numbers at Ra = 103 and Ra = 105 both increase with nanoparticle volume fraction.

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