However, there is no direct evidence provided that CD8+Foxp3+ T c

However, there is no direct evidence provided that CD8+Foxp3+ T cells contribute significantly to suppression in vivo, and no suppression data of CD8+Foxp3− T cells (which we here show to have comparable suppressive activity) are available. In summary, while we recently excluded an importance of Foxp3 expression in nonhematopoietic CDK inhibitors in clinical trials cells for the suppression of autoimmunity 24, we show here that Foxp3 can be expressed in a highly restricted

subset of CD8+ T cells sharing phenotypic and developmental characteristics with CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs. However, induced CD8+Foxp3+ T cells are not enriched in suppressive activity on T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with Foxp3− counterparts and show rather weak suppressive activity compared with CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs. Additionally, the Foxp3+ niche is predominantly populated by CD4+CD8− Tregs under physiological conditions, including the intestine which is rich in Foxp3-inducing factors. Therefore,

the physiological relevance of CD8+Foxp3+ T cells as suppressive population might have been previously overestimated. In fact, multiple mechanisms seem to prevent the generation/expansion of CD8+Foxp3+ T cells, including Dnmt1 42. The underlying mechanisms and physiological importance of this “natural imbalance” remain to be further explored. This study now provides an additional possible mechanism (co-stimulation by DC) and a rationale explanation (lack of strong suppressive activity). Future Ivacaftor in vitro studies will have Unoprostone to define if certain pathological conditions can significantly alter the pool size and suppressive activity of CD8+Foxp3+ T cells. Rag1−/−, OTI, OTII, CD45.1, CD80KOxCD86KO and Sf mice were purchased from Jackson. DEREG mice were described previously 6. All mice were bred at the Twincore (Hannover, Germany) or the Helmholtz Centre for Infection

Research (Braunschweig, Germany). All animal experiments were performed under specific pathogen-free conditions and in accordance with institutional, state and federal guidelines. The following antibodies and secondary reagents were purchased from eBioscience: α-CD4 (GK1.5), α-CD8-α (53-6.7), α-CD25 (PC61.5), α-CD45.1 (A20), α-CD73 (TY/11.8), α-CD103 (M290), α-CTLA4 (UC10-4B9), α-IFN-γ (XMG1.2), α-Foxp3 (FJK-16s), α-GITR (DTA-1), streptavidin and appropriate isotype controls. For intracellular cytokine staining, the IC fixation/permeabilization kit from eBioscience was used. Foxp3 staining was carried out using the Foxp3 fixation/permeabilization kit (eBioscience). Cytometric analysis was performed using LSRII (BD) and FlowJo software (Treestar). Dead cells were excluded by propidium iodide or ethidium bromide monoazide staining, and cellular aggregates were excluded by SSC-W. For ex vivo analysis of CD8+Foxp3+ T cells, secondary lymphoid organs were digested with collagenase D and DNaseI (both Roche).

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