It will mainly focus on 2 topics: the use of opioid medication

It will mainly focus on 2 topics: the use of opioid medication MG132 for the acute treatment of migraine attacks and continuous prophylactic use for refractory chronic migraine.

Opioids have been used to treat pain for thousands of years. The first recorded use was by the ancient Greeks who derived them from the opium poppy Papava somniferum. The use of opioids probably predates recorded history, however, and while it is hard to know when they were first used for headache treatment, this likely has a history spanning millennia as well. The therapeutic use of opioids is as controversial as any topic in medicine. The use of prescription opioids has dramatically risen over the past 20 years, although may be leveling off and probably

will decrease over the next several years.[1, 2] The prescribing of opioids for acute and chronic treatment of headache disorders appears to have click here followed this cyclic trend. Careful analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of opioid therapy in migraine and other disorders seems especially called for in this current time of change. This article will attempt to do that, focusing on the role of opioids in the acute management of headache as well as chronic treatment of refractory migraine and other chronic disabling headache disorders. Opioid analgesics are often divided into (1) the naturally occurring alkaloids derived from the opium poppy, (2) semisynthetic agents, and (3) synthetic compounds. The term opiate

is supposed to be applied only to the first group, while opioids refer to any analgesic resembling or sharing key properties with this group. Opioids interact with opioid receptors of which there are several known types: mu, delta, and kappa. All 3 receptors when activated can promote analgesia. Opioid receptors are present on both sides of the first synapse in the nociceptive pathway (spinal cord dorsal horn for trunk and limb nociception; spinal trigeminal nucleus for facial and anterior head nociception), so both pain signal transmission and release of excitatory neurotransmitters are reduced by medications with opioid agonism. Another way of classifying opioids, which is more helpful 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 in assessing effects on pain, is to consider 3 groups divided as to their agonistic/antagonistic effects on opioid receptors: full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists. Morphine and other opioid agonists probably work for head pain by modifying nociceptive input to the spinal trigeminal nucleus (nucleus caudalis), but it is fairly clear that they have no effect on the source of migraine pain – ie, neurovascular. For this reason, and others that will be covered later, their effectiveness in primary headache is limited.

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