PP, MLF and AS coordinated the study VP, DD, CG, MLF collected d

PP, MLF and AS coordinated the study. VP, DD, CG, MLF collected data. LS, PP, DD, CG, MLF and AS analyzed data, carried out data interpretation. LS, AS and PP participated in drafting of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) are the rate-limiting enzymes for the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid [1]. These two isoforms play different roles, with COX-2 in particular suggested to contribute to the progression of solid tumors [2]. Generally, constitutive activation of COX-2 has been demonstrated in various tumors of the lung, including atypical adenomatous hyperplasia [3], adenocarcinoma

[4], squamous cell carcinoma [5] and bronchiolar alveolar carcinoma [6], and its over-expression has been selleck kinase inhibitor associated with poor prognosis and short survival Selonsertib concentration of lung cancer patients [7]. However, although altered COX-2 activity is associated with malignant progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the intrinsic linkage has remained unclear. COX-2 is believed to stimulate proliferation

in lung cancer cells via COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and to prevent anticancer drug-induced apoptosis [8]. COX-2 has also been suggested to act as an angiogenic stimulator that may Staurosporine increase the production of angiogenic factors and enhance the migration of endothelial cells in tumor tissue [9]. Interestingly, COX-2 levels are significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma, an observation that is difficult to account for based on the findings noted above [10]. More importantly,

recent evidence has demonstrated that COX-2-transfected cells exhibit enhanced expression of VEGF [11], and COX-2-derived PGE2 has been found to promote angiogenesis [12]. These results suggest that up-regulation of VEGF in lung cancer PIK-5 by COX-2 is dependent on downstream metabolites rather than on the level of COX-2 protein itself. Although thromboxane A2 had been identified as a potential mediator of COX-2-dependent angiogenesis [13], little is known about the specific downstream signaling pathways by which COX-2 up-regulates VEGF in NSCLC. Here, on the basis of the association of COX-2 expression with VEGF in both NSCLC tumor tissues and cell lines, we treated NSCLC cells with concentrations of COX-2 sufficient to up-regulate VEGF expression and evaluated the signaling pathways that linked COX-2 stimulation with VEGF up-regulation. Material and methods Patients and specimens In our study, tissues from 84 cases of NSCLC, including adjacent normal tissues (within 1-2 cm of the tumor edge), were selected from our tissue database. Patients had been treated in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from May 2003 to January 2004. None of the patients had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy.

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