The data show that, in contrast to humans, pDC in macaques are ab

The data show that, in contrast to humans, pDC in macaques are able to express IL-12p40, which could have consequences for evaluation of human vaccine candidates and viral infection. Non-human primates (NHP) provide essential models for biomedical research and have been crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), influenza, malaria and tuberculosis [1]. The close phylogenetic relationship HSP targets with humans and consequential significant biological,

immunological and genetic similarities make NHP a highly relevant animal model in preclinical safety, immunogenicity and efficacy evaluation of vaccines and therapies. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the induction and regulation of immune responses [2]. Hence, appropriate triggering of DC function, including antigen presentation, migration, expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines, is critically important for

induction of adaptive immune responses during natural infection as well as during vaccination. DC function is modulated by infection with viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus and dengue virus [3-7]. For instance, chronic HIV infection in humans is associated with a reduced number of DC in blood and lymphoid tissues and decreased DC-mediated interferon (IFN)-α production [8-13]. A similar depletion and loss of function of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) is seen in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model of AIDS in macaques, while for myeloid (mDC) both a decrease as well as an increase has been reported [14-18]. Depletion of pDC in the blood may, in part, be a result of SAR245409 migration to the lymphoid tissues, where increased numbers have been reported both in SIV-infected macaques [19-21] as well as in HIV-1 infected humans [22]. The important role of DC in vaccination as well as in inflammation and infectious disease implies that the appropriate

interpretation of results obtained in Quinapyramine NHP disease models requires a proper understanding of phenotypic and functional characteristics of NHP DC in comparison with human DC. Several studies have shown that although NHP DC do not completely recapitulate the human DC system, they reflect it more closely than murine DC models [23]. As in humans, two populations of circulating DCs have been characterized, i.e. mDC, defined as negative for the lineage markers (CD3, CD8, CD14, CD20), human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)+, CD11c+, CD123– and pDC, which are lineage–, HLA-DR+, CD11c–, CD123+ [2, 16, 24]. Both human and NHP mDC mature upon granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and CD40L stimulation, have potent allostimulatory and interleukin (IL)-12-producing capacity and express the innate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) -3, -4, -7 and -8 [24, 25]. Instead, human and rhesus pDC are sensitive to IL-3 stimulation, are the main type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells and express TLR-7 and -9 [24-28].

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