The Si (100) specimens were driven with the diamond tip at variou

The Si (100) specimens were driven with the diamond tip at various load conditions. GDC-0449 research buy Scanning was performed 128, 256, and 512 times on a 4 × 4 μm2 area. To realize protuberance formation and plastic

deformation, 100 ± 10 nm radius diamond tips were selected [23]. Figure 1 Mechanical pre-processing method. KOH solution etching of the pre-processed silicon substrate with 10 wt% KOH solution at 20°C ± 3°C was performed on the AFM apparatus. After etching, the specimen was washed with distilled water, and the profile changes caused by the etching were then evaluated at the same positions using the same diamond tip as the processing tool. Dependence of additional KOH solution etching on etching time Three types of mechanical pre-processing were performed, as shown in Figure  2. For the first and second, the silicon Wnt/beta-catenin inhibitor surfaces were processed at 10- and 40-μN load at 1 × 1 μm2, respectively. Diamond tip sliding at 10-μN load and 256 scanning number produced protuberance. At 40-μN load, the processed area protuberated, and plastic deformation began [27, 28]. Under these load conditions, the processed layers prevented KOH solution etching. For

SAR302503 price the third type of pre-processing, the sample was slid at 1.5-μN load and 256 scans in a 5 × 5 μm2 area. Finally, the processed samples were etched with 10 wt% KOH solution at 20°C ± 3°C for 10, 25, 30, and 40 min. Changes in the topography of the sample during the etching process were observed by tip scanning at less than 0.3 μN over an area of 15 × 15 μm2. Figure 2 Mechanical and additional pre-processing. Results and discussion Dependence of KOH solution etching on mechanical pre-processing owing to the removal of the natural oxide layer To clarify the mechanism responsible for the increase in the etching rate on the removal of the natural oxide layer, the mechanical pre-processing

was performed at 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-μN load. The dependence of the etching profile on the pre-processing load at 128 scans is shown in Figure  3. The etching depths of the samples pre-processed at 1- and 2-μN load were 10 and 84 nm, respectively. At 4-μN load, the etching depth was saturated at 83 nm. However, the etching depth decreased to 26.3 nm at 6-μN load. Thus, the greatest etching depths were obtained at the 2- and 4-μN-load pre-processed areas.Furthermore, Astemizole for 256 scans, the etching depths were 50 nm at 1-μN load, 83 nm at 2-μN load, 50 nm at 4-μN load, and 0 nm at 6-μN load, as shown in Figure  4. The largest etching depth, 83 nm, was obtained in the areas pre-processed at 2-μN load. Figure  5 shows the etching profiles of pre-processed areas scanned 512 times. The greatest etching depth obtained after 512 scans was 50 nm at the lowest load of 1 μN.Figure  6a shows the dependence of etching depth on the pre-processed load. Under these conditions, the unprocessed areas were negligibly etched.

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