This state, however, cannot be associated with depression, which

This state, however, cannot be associated with depression, which was diagnosed in singular patients with Down syndrome, by whom speech memory deficits and memory of performed actions deficits were diagnosed [29]. The state of oral hygiene in

patients with Down syndrome, currently undergoing active orthodontic treatment, was unsatisfactory. Overall, the lingual surfaces of teeth in the mandible (especially on the right side) showed insufficient signs of tooth brushing, which may be attributed to the patient being right-handed. The poor state of oral hygiene, found in our patients confirms the notion present by researchers that the special programme, involving the treatment needs of patients with Down syndrome is essential in order to establish better treatment AZD2281 in vitro standards. In patients with Down syndrome correct speech can be restored and facial aesthetics improved through orthodontic rehabilitation. These actions can enable patients with Down syndrome to function better in society. Orthodontic treatment in patients with Down syndrome should be multidisciplinary and often presents a challenge for the clinician. SGI-1776 ic50 Cooperation might be difficult to achieve due to presence of mental retardation. Nevertheless, mutual understanding of one’s goal, shared by both the clinician and patient’s parents is crucial to obtain a better clinical

result. Patrycja Pietrzak – study design, data collection and interpretation, literature search, acceptance of final manuscript version, Ewa Kowalska

– data collection, literature search, acceptance of final manuscript version. None declared. “
“Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) are potential bacterial pathogens of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Nasopharyngeal acquisition and intensification of colonization with these bacteria is associated with increased incidence of acute otitis media 1., 2., 3. and 4.. Therefore nasopharyngeal (NP) swab had been considered as a relatively noninvasive technique which could provide information on etiology of AOM in order to avoid the much more invasive and usually unnecessary tympanocentesis providing a direct culture of medium ear fluid (MEF) [5]. The value of NP culture as specific, sensitive and also predictive test to define Dehydratase etiology of AOM had been evaluated before in three studies: in the USA [6], in France [7] and in Israel [8]. In Israel in the same center particular attention was later paid to the value of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures for the assessment of nonresponsive AOM in children [9]. In Scandinavian study the value of NP cultures as predictors of etiology of both AOM and of acute maxillary sinusitis was also evaluated [10]. In all these studies nasopharyngeal culture appeared to be specific and relatively sensitive test but poorly predictive to define etiology of AOM.

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