Ultimately, we support our theoretical results through extensive

Ultimately, we support our theoretical results through extensive numerical evaluations and Monte Carlo simulations. Published by Elsevier”
“Fear extinction is defined as the attenuation of a conditioned-fear memory by re-exposing animals to the conditioned stimulus without the aversive stimulus. This process is known

to be effectively enhanced via administration of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist. However, other glutamatergic mechanisms, such as interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes PS341 5 and 7 in the extinction of aversive memories are insufficiently understood. Using the allosteric mGluR5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR7 allosteric agonist N,N’-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), and DCS for comparison, we

aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influenced within- and between-session conditioned-fear extinction training and extinction retention in rats. We show that when injected before extinction training, mGluR7 activation Evofosfamide with AMN082 enhanced freezing and thereby attenuated within-session fear extinction, whereas both DCS and the mGluR5 receptor antagonist MPEP had no effect on this process. However, these differential drug effects were not long lasting, as no difference in extinction retention were observed 24 h later. Therefore, we assessed whether the compounds affect 24 h consolidation of extinction training following incomplete extinction training (between-session extinction). Similar to DCS, AMN082- but not MPEP-treated rats showed facilitated extinction retention, as exhibited by decreased freezing. Finally, using fluoxetine, we provide evidence that the effect of AMN082 on between-session extinction retention is most likely not via increasing 5-HT transmission. These SB525334 cost findings demonstrate that mGluR7 activation differentially modulates conditioned-fear extinction, in dependence on the protocol employed, and suggests

drugs with AMN082-like mechanisms as potential add-on drugs following exposure-based psychotherapy for fear-related human disorders. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a worldwide major concern having, among others, deleterious effects on plants. In the present work, the effects of a 20 mu M Cd exposure in hydroponics culture during 14 days were evaluated in young poplar leaves. Proteins were analysed by 2-D DIGE, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additionally, growth and other physiological parameters were monitored during the experiment. Treated plants exhibited an inhibition of growth and visual symptoms appeared after 7 days. A significant accumulation of Cd in all organs was recorded by ICP-MS analysis.

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