Ecology 83:1421–1432CrossRef Steffan-Dewenter I, Kessler M, Barkm

Ecology 83:1421–1432CrossRef Steffan-Dewenter I, Kessler M, Barkmann

J et al (2007) Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification. PNAS 104:4973–4978CrossRefPubMed Tscharntke T, Klein AM, Kruess A et al (2005a) SB-715992 datasheet Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity––ecosystem service management. Ecol Lett 8:857–874CrossRef Tscharntke T, Rand TA, Bianchi FJJA et al (2005b) The landscape context of trophic interactions: insect spillover across the crop-noncrop interface. Ann Zool Fenn 42:421–432 Tylianakis JM, Klein AM, Lozada T et al (2006) Spatial scale of observation selleck chemicals llc affects alpha, beta and gamma diversity of cavity-nesting bees and wasps across a tropical land-use gradient. J Biogeogr 33:1295–1304CrossRef Westphal C, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T (2003) Mass flowering crops enhance pollinator densities at a landscape scale. Ecol Lett 6:961–965CrossRef Winfree

R, Griswold T, Kremen C (2007) Effect of human disturbance on bee communities in a forested ecosystem. Conserv Biol 21:213–223CrossRefPubMed Wunderle JM, Willig MR, Henriques LMP (2005) Avian distribution in treefall gaps and understorey of terra firme forest in the lowland Amazon. Ibis 147:109–129CrossRef”
“Introduction Invasive species are estimated to be among the leading causes of global biodiversity loss (Wilcove et al. 1998). Biological invasions PFT�� may cause population declines, and even extinctions, of native species through various direct and indirect pathways (Mack et al. 2000), and global climate change may magnify these impacts (Hellman et al. 2008). Because risk of extinction is usually not distributed randomly among species (McKinney 1997), it is important to understand which species tend to be most vulnerable and what factors promote this vulnerability. Both ecological theory and the fossil record predict

that certain traits will predispose species to higher risk of extinction (McKinney 1997). Based on this idea, numerous studies have sought to correlate vulnerability with biological and Carbohydrate ecological traits for many different vertebrate groups (e.g., reviewed in McKinney 1997; Reynolds 2003; Fisher and Owens 2004). The risk factors most frequently reported for vertebrates include small population density or size, small geographic range, high degree of ecological specialization, slow growth rate, low fecundity and high trophic position. In addition, it has been proposed that a lack of evolutionary experience with a particular predator or competitor should promote vulnerability among newly exposed species (Diamond and Case 1986; Ricciardi et al. 1998; Kats and Ferrer 2003).

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