All participants were satisfied with the training they received,

All participants were satisfied with the training they received, and gave very positive feedback concerning the program (Table 2). AZD8931 solubility dmso Discussion In Japan, nearly all trauma patients are victims of blunt traumatic injuries, particularly from automobile accidents. There is essentially no penetrating trauma at all. The number of patients undergoing surgery for blunt injuries

has decreased given improvements in AZD2171 price automotive safety and design. Hemostatic procedures are one of the most important skills in trauma surgery. Surgical residents should master the crucial hemostatic skills to deal with the hemorrhage in trauma operations. However, they have few chances to learn hemostatic skills in actual clinical care, due to a paucity of operative cases as well as the hierarchical nature of training [10]. We sought to develop an effective simulation model to teach hemostatic skills to residents, and conducted ex-vivo training with a circulation pump to provide residents with a chance for basic hemostatic skill training. Various types of simulation training exist in surgical education. Reznick et al described the features of the types of simulation available and concluded that live tissue is suitable for procedures requiring blood flow [1]. Live animal training may be ideal for for hemostatic skill training. Many trauma surgery courses held around the world utilize

LY3023414 solubility dmso live tissue for learning hemostatic skills. However, these courses are generally expensive and do not allow repetitive experiences. Furthermore, from an ethical perspective, we must seek to reduce the use of live animals. The direct costs of this study were limited to the facility fee and the cost of consumable items such as sutures. The facility fee included the cost of storing the organs and use of instruments. There were no other associated direct costs. Cadaver training, which demonstrates accurate anatomy, is suitable for learning complex surgical procedures [11] but cannot be

used in realistic simulations for teaching hemostatic techniques O-methylated flavonoid because there is no bleeding. Though a virtual reality simulator is reusable and easy to prepare [12], its texture is far from realistic and its three-dimensional image is generally well simulated so that it is not a realistic model. Although some types of dry-models are useful for surgical training [13], they cannot make a realistic bleeding model. The model used here maintains the texture of live tissue because actual organs are used. The freeze/thaw cycle did not change the tactile sensation of the tissue, nor did it destroy the large vessels with in the organs, notably the kidney in the model used here. Also, by utilizing a circulation pump, it provides a more realistic training situation than ex-vivo tissue alone, yet is much less expensive than live animal models.

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