However, fluoxetine decreased depression-related behavior and was

However, fluoxetine decreased depression-related behavior and was anxiogenic. Tryptophan with concomitant fluoxetine did not alter anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, our data suggests that the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine was not enhanced by concomitant administration of tryptophan, which could be associated with increased levels of tryptophan in CSF. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the related mechanisms. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sulfur mustard (SM), a vessicating agent, has been used in chemical warfare since 1918. The purpose of this study was to quantitate

SM vapor deposition, tissue distribution, and excretion following intratracheal inhalation in rats and cutaneous exposure

in guinea pigs. 14C-SM vapors for inhalation studies were generated by PF-573228 metering liquid 14C-SM into a heated J tube. Vapors were transported via carrier air supplemented with oxygen and isoflurane to an exposure plenum. Anesthetized rats with transorally placed tracheal catheters were connected to the plenum port via the catheter hub for exposure (approximately 250 mg 14C-SM vapor/m3; 10 min). For dermal exposure, 3 Teflon cups (6.6 cm2 exposure area per cup) were applied to the backs of each animal and vapors (525 mg 14C-SM/m3; 12 min) were generated by applying 6 l 14C-SM to filter paper within each cup. Animals were euthanized at selected times up to 7 d postexposure. SM equivalents deposited in rats and guinea pigs were 18.1 +/- 3 g and 29.8 +/- 5.31 g, respectively. Inhaled SM equivalents rapidly Angiogenesis inhibitor distributed throughout the body within 2 h postexposure, with the majority (70%) of material at that time located in carcass and pelt. In guinea pigs, 90% of deposited SM equivalents remained in skin, with minor distribution to blood and kidneys. Urine was the primary route of excretion for both species. Results indicate inhaled SM is rapidly absorbed from the lung and distributed throughout the body while there is limited systemic distribution following cutaneous exposure.”
“The human

visual system responds to expertise, and it has been suggested that regions that process faces also process other objects of expertise including chess boards by experts. We tested whether chess and face processing overlap in brain activity using fMRI. Chess experts and novices exhibited face selective areas, but these regions showed no selectivity to chess configurations relative to other stimuli. We next compared neural responses to chess and to scrambled chess displays to isolate areas relevant to expertise. Areas within the posterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, and right temporal cortex were active in this comparison in experts over novices. We also compared chess and face responses within the posterior cingulate and found this area responsive to chess only in experts.

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