In dermal fibroblasts, accumulation of glucosylceramide DNA Damage inhibitor augments actin polymerization and promotes microtubules persistence, resulting in a
higher number of filopodia and lamellipodia and longer microtubules. Similar cytoskeletal defects were observed in male germ and Sertoli cells from GBA2 knockout-mice. In particular, the organization of F-actin structures in the ectoplasmic specialization and microtubules in the sperm manchette is affected. Thus, glucosylceramide regulates cytoskeletal dynamics, providing mechanistic insights into how glucosylceramide controls signaling pathways not only during sperm development, but also in other cell types.”
“Insulin resistance has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased cardiovascular risk in several high-risk populations.
The purpose of this study was to determine if insulin resistance measured by insulin clamp can predict deterioration of glucose metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic young adult African Americans. Nondiabetic young African American men (n = 60) and women (n = 114),were enrolled. Measurements obtained included blood pressure, anthropometrics, plasma lipids, oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin CA3 in vivo sensitivity by insulin clamp. Participants were reexamined 8 years later. The relationship between insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism was analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance with body mass index at the initial examination as a covariate. After adjusting for the significant difference of body mass index between the insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive groups, Tozasertib inhibitor insulin resistance
predicted statistically significant worsening glucose metabolism, developing diabetes, and increasing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae) are commonly regarded as generalist insect predators but resources provided by plants such as pollen may be an important dietary supplementation. Their webs snare insect prey, but can also trap aerial plankton like pollen and fungal spores. When recycling their orb webs, the spiders may therefore also feed on adhering pollen grains or fungal spores via extraoral digestion. In this study we measured stable isotope ratios in the bodies of two araneid species (Aculepeira ceropegia and Araneus diadematus), their potential prey and pollen to determine the relative contribution of pollen to their diet. We found that about 25% of juvenile orb-weaving spiders’ diet consisted of pollen, the other 75% of flying insects, mainly small dipterans and hymenopterans. The pollen grains in our study were too large to be taken up accidentally by the spiders and had first to be digested extraorally by enzymes in an active act of consumption. Therefore, pollen can be seen as a substantial component of the spiders’ diet.