In plants, NA appears to be involved in iron availability and is

In plants, NA appears to be involved in iron availability and is essential for the plant to complete its biological cycle. In graminaceous plants, NA is also the precursor in the biosynthesis of phytosiderophores. Arabidopsis lines accumulating 4- and 100-fold more NA than wild-type plants were used in order to evaluate the impact of such an NA overaccumulation on iron homeostasis. The expression

of iron-regulated genes including the IRT1/FRO2 iron uptake system is highly induced at the transcript level JQ1 cost under both iron-sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. Nevertheless, NA overaccumulation does not interfere with the iron uptake mechanisms selleck chemical since the iron levels are similar in the NA-overaccumulating line and wild-type plants in both roots and leaves under both sufficient and deficient conditions. This observation also suggests that the translocation of iron from the root to the shoot is not affected in the NA-overaccumulating line. However, NA overaccumulation triggers an enhanced sensitivity to iron starvation, associated with

a decrease in iron availability. This study draws attention to a particular phenotype where NA in excess paradoxically leads to iron deficiency, probably because of an increase of the NA apoplastic pool sequestering iron. This finding strengthens the notion that extracellular NA in the apoplast could be a major checkpoint to control plant iron homeostasis.”
“Objectives Physical activity (PA) is increasingly discussed as a means Ulixertinib cell line to achieve both physical and psychological benefits for breast cancer patients and survivors. However, little is known about activity-specific PA behavior following diagnosis. Our objectives were to describe sports and active transportation

in the course of breast cancer and to identify factors associated with these activities. Methods We used data from a German cohort study including 1067 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors aged 50-75years. Data were collected about walking and bicycling for transportation purposes and sports before diagnosis, during therapy, and 1year after surgery. Associations between these activities and clinical, behavioral, and social characteristics were analyzed with logistic regression. Results The proportions of physically active women decreased significantly during therapy compared with before diagnosis (walking: 75.1% vs. 89.7%; bicycling: 19.3% vs. 56.5%; sports: 14.8% vs. 64.5%; all p<0.001). Calisthenics, swimming, and walking for exercise were the most frequent types of sport. Chemotherapy/radiotherapy was negatively associated with sports (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35 [0.17-0.73]) but positively associated with walking during therapy (OR: 2.08 [1.04-4.15]).

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