METHODS: On-field head impact data were collected from 449 footba

METHODS: On-field head impact data were collected from 449 football players at 13 organizations (n = 289,916) using in-helmet systems of six single-axis accelerometers. Concussions were diagnosed by medical staff and later associated GSK2118436 chemical structure with impact data. Principal component analysis and a weighting coefficient based on impact location

were used to transform correlated head impact measures into a new composite variable, weighted principal component score (wPCS). The predictive power of linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, head injury criterion, and wPCS was quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. The null hypothesis, that a measure was flu more predictive than guessing, was tested (alpha = 0.05). In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves for wPCS and classical measures were directly compared to test the hypothesis that wPCS was more predictive of concussion than were classic measures (alpha = 0.05).

RESULTS: When all of the impacts were considered, every biomechanical measure evaluated was statistically more predictive of concussion than guessing (P < 0,005). However, for the top 1 and 2% of impacts based on linear acceleration,

a subset that consisted of 82% of all diagnosed concussions, only wPCS was significantly more predictive of concussion than guessing (P < 0.03); when compared with each other, wPCS was more predictive of concussion than were classical measures for the top I and 2% of all of the data (P < 0.04).

CONCLUSION: check details A weighted combination of several biomechanical inputs, including impact location, is more predictive of concussion than a single biomechanical measure. This study is the first to the authors’ knowledge to quantify improvements in the sensitivity of a biomechanical measure to incidence of concussion when impact location is considered. KEY WORDS: Concussion, Football, Head impact biomechanics, Head impact tolerance, Mild traumatic brain injury, Sports injury prevention”
“The current study reports the production Evodiamine of baculoviral-virosomal vectors consisting of lipoplexes and of the viral

glycoprotein (GP64) of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhdrovirus (AcMNPV). This study demonstrates that such complexes have an increased transfection capability in a number of cells, including undifferentiated H9 human embryonic stem H9hES cells compared to lipoplexes alone. The GP64-mediated enhancement of gene transfer of lipoplexes is inhibited by the addition of anti-GP64 neutralizing antibody and by a modified GP64 protein, but is however less potent than vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-mediated enhancement of gene transfer of lipoplexes. This difference may be explained in part by the dissimilarity in the fusogenic properties of their respective viral glycoprotein. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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