The conflict effect in error rate can be predicted by the conflic

The conflict effect in error rate can be predicted by the conflict-related ACC activation (r = 0.56, F(1, 22) = 9.81, P < 0.01). To examine whether the relation of conflict-related ACC activity and error rate between groups were parallel, the conflict effect in error rate was regressed on ACC activation, group, and ACC activation-by-group variables. The interaction term was significant (t = −3.16, P < 0.01), indicating that the slopes were not parallel. Further examination of the

relation between conflict-related ACC activity and error rate by group showed a significant correlation in the ASD group (r = −0.66, F(1, 10) = 7.80, P < 0.05), but not in the HC group (r = 0.26, F < 1). These results suggest that an increased cost of conflict (in error rate) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is correlated with decreases in ACC activation in the ASD group, but no significant relation in the HC group (see Fig. 4E). Similar to error rate, the conflict effect in RT can be predicted by conflict-related ACC activation (r = −0.46, F(1, 22) = 6.04, P < 0.05) in both groups. More efficient conflict Docetaxel nmr processing (less increase in RT under Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition) was related to greater ACC activation. The interaction term in a model testing the parallelism of the two slopes with conflict-related ACC activation, group, and conflict-related

ACC activation-by-group interaction as predictors showed that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the interaction term was not significant (t = −0.23, P > 0.05). This indicates that the conflict-related ACC activation does

not differentially predict the conflict effect in RT Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between groups (see Fig. 4F). ACC activity was related to the conflict effect measured by RT in both groups. The relation between functional activation during the conflict processing of the ROI, which was identified by group difference, the behavioral effect of conflict, and ADI-R subscores in ASD group was also examined. Results indicate that the communication and language domain Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was significantly correlated with the efficiency (measured as accuracy) during conflict processing (Fig. 5). That is, domain symptoms in communication and language are related to less efficient conflict processing. Figure 5 Symptom-executive control association. More symptoms of communication/language are related to greater cost on accuracy in conflict processing. Discussion Our results indicate NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE significant behavioral deficits of the alerting and executive attentional networks in ASD relative to HC, but not the orienting network or network interactions. Behavioral deficits were associated with abnormalities in the neural networks supporting attentional functions. Even in the absence of behavioral differences among the orienting network and network interactions, neural differences were present. Individuals with ASD made more errors if there was no alerting cue preceding the target. This alerting deficit was associated with abnormal activation of MFG and caudate nucleus in ASD.

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