The relationship between healthcare access and disease risk resul

The relationship between healthcare access and disease risk results in clear tradeoffs between economic and health burden across sub-populations. Groups with higher estimated rotavirus mortality tend to have lower healthcare costs. This is not unexpected given that poor access to care contributes to increased risk

of mortality (e.g. less likely to receive timely rehydration). In addition, some of the same underlying factors such as geographic distance, lack of access to services, and low household economic resources, can contribute to increased risk and reduced healthcare utilization. The result is an inverse relationship between economic and health burdens among the sub-groups, with some showing greater health burden and others greater economic burden. This pattern of heterogeneity in economic and health burden leads FK228 to alternative Selleckchem Ibrutinib rationales for vaccination in different sub-groups. In some of the highest mortality states and poorest wealth quintiles, the primary justification for vaccination is the potential reduction in diarrheal mortality. In contrast, in lower mortality and higher wealth groups, the primary benefit is the potential for averting costs. Of course, in a given population both economic and health benefits occur, but their relative magnitudes will vary. The current study has several important limitations.

The estimates of rotavirus mortality by region are based on Morris GBA3 et al. [14]. While these are the most recent published estimates by region, the original data is approximately a decade old. Changes in underlying mortality may reduce the differences observed between and within regions. We used a wide range of mortality estimates to address this in our sensitivity analysis. There is also uncertainty in how we estimated rotavirus mortality within regions using risk factors and published risk estimates. Other risk factors

not considered here may increase or decrease disparities in rotavirus mortality among economic groups. This analysis only follows one birth cohort and does not account for possible changes in coverage equity in subsequent cohorts as suggested by Victora et al. [45]. The current analysis suggests that healthcare utilization patterns vary across geographic and socio-economic groups, resulting in differences in expected costs and potential cost savings. Although we attempted to account for these differences in utilization, we did not account for potential differences in the cost associated with different levels of care in different settings. For example, the costs of private outpatient or inpatient care might be greater in higher income areas. Additional data on differences in both utilization and unit costs of treatment are needed to develop better estimates.

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