With the goal to increase the relevance of biomedical research PX-478 cost for clinical innovation, a number of actors in biomedicine and policy-making have argued for the expansion of efforts made in the area of applied pre-clinical laboratory research and early clinical research. Advocates of this view have promoted the concept of a field of Translational Research (or Translational Medicine or Translational Science; abbreviated to TR here), with dedicated expertise
focused on mobilizing basic research results and clinical experience in the development of new or improved clinical interventions. TR propositions have been characterized by a desire to link together biological, engineering, biochemistry and clinical competences to provide integrated academic or public–private RTD pipelines. It is perhaps most appropriate to talk of TR as a reform this website movement within biomedical research (following Milne and Kaitin 2009), one that aims to change both researchers’ experimental practices and policy-makers’ and academic administrators’ organisational models (Gaisser et al. 2009). There has been intense discussion of these new propositions within the biomedical community (Nathan 2002; Weissmann 2005; Khoury et al. 2007;
Wehling 2008; Woolf 2008; Milne and Kaitin 2009; Wehling 2010; Marincola 2011), and a number of well-advertised and well-funded new institutions that bear the label of TR have recently been established (Zerhouni 2005; NCI 2007; Borstein and Licinio 2011; Collins 2011; Kupferschmidt 2011; Shahzad et al.
2011; von Roth et al. 2011). Despite all of this activity, it is still unclear to which extent the propositions of the TR movement have effectively led to concrete changes in both the daily experimental and organisational practices of biomedical actors and the orientations of those state-formulated policies that frame innovation activities. This article examines the recent policies and institutional initiatives of three European countries to answer this question. Understanding change in biomedical innovation: a proposed analytical grid Making academic research activities more relevant to industry and civil Methocarbamol society has been a recurring goal of science, technology and innovation policy makers since the 1980s (Guston 2000; Nowotny et al. 2001; Van der Weijden et al. 2012). In the biomedical field more specifically, typical measures that have been put into place by state- and institution-level policy-makers to achieve this goal have included: the find more promotion of academic entrepreneurship for the creation of specialized biotechnology firms that can engage in RTD work (Corolleur et al. 2004; Ebers and Powell 2007; Grimaldi et al.
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- C-KC and RS are funded by the NIHR Specialist Biomedical Research
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