Prior history of social instability in the form of early-life sep

Prior history of social instability in the form of early-life separation from the mother also exacerbates vulnerability to later life chronic subordination stress (Veenema et al., 2008). In humans, stressful situations can promote affiliative behavior (Zucker et al., 1968, Teichman, 1974 and Taylor, 2006) and anticipation of stressful events can promote group cohesion and liking for group members (Latané et al., 1966 and Morris et al., 1976). All stress is not the same, however, and in some cases,

social behavior is reduced after a stressor – in fact social withdrawal is one of the diagnostic #Modulators randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (DSM V, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While effects Selleck EGFR inhibitor of stress on social

behavior are evident in humans, most of our understanding of these impacts, and of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, come from rodent studies. In rodents, several stressors and manipulations of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) hormonal axis have been shown to impact a variety of subsequent social behaviors. In this case, much of what we know comes from research on prairie voles for which there appear to be important differences between the sexes, with some outcomes dependent on whether the partners are same-sex siblings or opposite-sex mates. As previously mentioned, prairie voles provide an opportunity to study pair-bond formation between males and females, as this species forms reproductive pair bonds both in the laboratory and in the field. Prairie voles also exhibit unusually

high levels of circulating CORT relative click here to other rodents including montane voles, rats, and mice (DeVries et al., 1995) moderated by reduced tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (Taymans et al., 1997 and Klein et al., 1996). Stress has opposite effects on the formation of mate preferences in male and female prairie voles. In males, stressful experiences mildly enhances the ability to form partner preferences for females. Males do not typically form a partner preference for a female after 6 h of cohabitation, however they form significant preferences within this time interval when paired after a brief swim stress (DeVries et al., 1996). Preference formation is also facilitated by CORT administration in male prairie voles, and impaired by adrenalectomy (DeVries et al., 1996). Some doses of central CRF administration also facilitate partner preference formation in males (DeVries et al., 2002). Interestingly, CORT decreases after pairing with a female, but partner preferences are not established during the early cohousing interval, and CORT levels have returned to baseline by the time male preferences have been formed (DeVries et al., 1997). In female prairie voles, stress impairs partner preference formation, but this effect is prevented in adrenalectomized voles (DeVries et al., 1996).

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