The sample size was calculated based on study by Sepp et al [50],

The sample size was calculated based on study by Sepp et al [50], which reported a higher prevalence

of Lactobacillus at 12 months of age in Estonian infants (63%) compared with Swedish infants (38%). We therefore anticipated the difference ATR inhibitor to be approximately 25% with a power of 90% and a two-sided test size of 5%, 49 subjects were required in each group. No probiotics and prebiotics consumption was reported for SG cohort during the early infancy. Four infants within the IN cohort were partially fed with milk formula that contained prebiotics. Written informed consent for participation in the study was obtained from the parents/guardians of all infants. The study was approved by the National University Hospital’s ethics review committee (Ref Code: B/00/322). Cilengitide Stool sampling Stool samples were collected on day 3, and at 1, 3, and 12 month after birth based on collection and processing produce as described previously [51]. Stool samples were collected into sterile plastic vials by parents, stored in the freezer at -20°C and delivered to the Vactosertib in vivo laboratory within 20 hours. The samples were kept cool on a dry-ice pack during transport and, immediately upon arrival at the laboratory, diluted with 0.85% sodium chloride solution (saline)

to give a 0.1 g/ml homogenate. After preparation of the homogenate, samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA), and stored in TN (10 mM Tris-HCl [pH 8], 150 of mM NaCl) buffer at -80°C for later FISH-FC and DNA extraction respectively. Stool samples stored in PFA and TN buffer from Indonesia were shipped on dry-ice pack to single location (laboratory in National

University of Singapore) for analysis. DNA extraction and T-RFLP Analysis Bacterial DNA extractions from stool samples were carried out as described previously [51] using 0.3 g of 0.1 mm zirconia/silica beads (Biospec, Inc) and a mini bead-beater (Biospec, Inc). In brief, the aqueous supernatant containing DNA will be subsequently subjected to two phenol-chloroform (1:2) extractions and precipitated with 1 ml of ethanol and 50 μl of 3 M sodium acetate. Finally, DNA will be dissolved in 25 μl of sterile TE Buffer (pH 8.0) and stored at -20°C until analysis. For T-RFLP analysis, 16S rRNA genes were amplified using primers 47F (5′- Cy5 -GCY TAA YAC ATG CAA GT -3′) and 1492R (5′-GGY TAC CTT GTT ACG ACT T-3′). PCR reaction mix comprises of 50 ng of DNA template, 0.2 μM (each) of forward and reverse primers, 0.2 mM dNTP, 1.5 U of Ex Taq DNA polymerase (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) and the volume added up to 50 μl with molecular biological grade water. The PCR conditions were as follow: 3 mins at 95°C, 20 cycles (30 seconds at 95°C, 45 seconds at 50°C, 1 min at 72°C), and 5 mins at 72°C. After PCR amplification, mung bean digestion (New England Biolabs [NEB], MA) was carried out to digest single-stranded overhangs.

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