\n\nResults: Among the 44 articles that reported costs per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, vaccines cost less than or equal to $100 per DALY averted in 23 articles (52%). Vaccines cost less than $500 per DALY averted in 34 articles (77%), and less than $1000 per DALY averted in 38 articles (86%) in one of the scenarios. 24 articles (22%) examined broad level economic benefits of vaccines such as greater future wage-earning capacity and cost savings from averting disease outbreaks. 60 articles (56%) gathered data from a primary source. There were little data on long-term and societal economic benefits such as

morbidity-related productivity gains, averting catastrophic health expenditures, growth in gross domestic product (GDP), and economic implications of demographic changes resulting from vaccination.\n\nConclusions: This review documents Selleck QNZ the available evidence and shows that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits. The cost-effectiveness studies reviewed suggest to policy

makers that vaccines are an efficient investment. This review further highlights key gaps in the available literature that would benefit from additional research, especially in the area of evaluating the broader economic benefits of vaccination in the developing world. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study demonstrated selleck chemical the potential applicability of the isolated strains of Yarrowia lipolytica for the valorization of glycerol waste generated during biodiesel production, throughout biomass production. Twenty-one strains were isolated from different environments

and identified as Y. lipolytica. Biomass production from pure glycerol (25 g L-1) was performed in the shake-flasks experiment. Eight strains with the best biomass production ability were chosen for studies in bioreactor (pH 3.5). The analysis of technological process parameters and biomass chemical composition demonstrated that S6 strain was the most suitable for biomass production. Its application allowed obtaining 11.7 and 12.3 g L-1 of the biomass with 1.30 and 1.37 g L-1 h(-1) productivity, respectively when pure and raw glycerol (25 g L-1) was used. In the yeast protein amino acid profile the contents of lysine, threonine and phenylalanine/tyrosine were higher than required by FAO/WHO. According to the EAAI, the nutritional value of the biomass reached up to 72.3%. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) from urine of patients with breast cancer were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS-MS).

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