To better characterize amygdala volume in PTSD, the authors conducted a meta-analysis comparing amygdala volumes in Rigosertib PTSD patients and comparison subjects. Using electronic databases, the authors found nine studies comparing amygdala volumes in adult subjects with PTSD with amygdala volumes in comparison subjects (participants unexposed to trauma and participants exposed
to trauma but without PTSD). Results showed no significant differences in amygdala volumes between the groups. Within each group, the right amygdala was significantly larger than the left, indicating an asymmetrically lateralized amygdala volume that is preserved in trauma exposure and in PTSD.”
“Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in the US. The economic burden of severe disease is substantial, including hospitalization costs and out-of-pocket expenses. RSV prophylaxis with either RSV immune globulin selleck inhibitor intravenous (RSV-IGIV) or palivizumab has been shown to be effective in reducing RSV-related hospitalizations. Motavizumab, a new enhanced-potency humanized RSV monoclonal antibody, is presently in clinical trials. RSV-IGIV and palivizumab are associated with high acquisition costs. Cost-effectiveness analyses are therefore of great importance in helping to determine who should receive RSV prophylaxis. Six studies have analysed the cost effectiveness of RSV-IGIV, 14 have analysed
the cost effectiveness of palivizumab and five have analysed the cost effectiveness of both agents, two of which directly compared palivizumab with RSV-IGIV. The cost effectiveness of motavizumab has not been studied.
variation exists in the modelling used in these analyses. Many studies have examined short-term benefits such as reducing hospitalizations and associated costs, while fewer studies have examined long-term benefits such as QALYs or life-years gained. The payer and society have been the most common perspectives used. The endpoints examined varied and generally did not account for GSK2126458 the potential impact of RSV prophylaxis on RSV-related complications such as asthma. While some studies have reported acceptable cost-effectiveness ratios for RSV prophylaxis, the majority failed to show cost savings or cost-effectiveness ratios below commonly accepted thresholds for either RSV-IGIV or palivizumab. Cost effectiveness of RSV prophylaxis tended to be more favourable in populations with specific risk factors, including premature infants weeks’ gestational age, and infants or children aged <2 years with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease.
Comparing the results of economic analyses of the two agents suggests palivizumab may be the more cost-effective option in the population for which RSV prophylaxis is recommended. Over time, the acquisition cost of RSV prophylaxis agents, a major cost driver, may decrease, and more acceptable outcomes of economic analyses may result.